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C
Map of the Illinois Basin, showing the extent of Pennsylvanian rocks, thickness of the Springfield Coal, and channels interrupting the coal. From Finley et al. (2005).  +
Correlation chart showing position of key units within the Pennsylvanian Subsystem. Global and provincial stage boundaries and ages in millions of years (Ma) are from Gradstein et al. (2012)  +
Satellite image of the mouth of the Mississippi River, showing natural levees and crevasse splays. Source of image: Google Earth.  +
Diagram showing units between the Houchin Creek and Herrin Coals, including members newly named in this report.  +
Wireline log illustrating the typical response of key units. (a) Electric log of Carter Oil #1 Beers well in Sec. 28, T8S, R4E, Williamson County, Illinois (county no. 2107). (b) Gamma-ray–resistivity log of Peabody Natural Gas #2 Short, in Sec. 14, T7S, R7E, Hamilton County (county no. 25375).  +
Wireline log illustrating the typical response of key units. (a) Electric log of Carter Oil #1 Beers well in Sec. 28, T8S, R4E, Williamson County, Illinois (county no. 2107). (b) Gamma-ray–resistivity log of Peabody Natural Gas #2 Short, in Sec. 14, T7S, R7E, Hamilton County (county no. 25375).  +
Graphic logs from cores serving as type sections of the newly named members: (a) Energy Plus borehole #ME-13 in Sec. 31, T4S, R6E, type section of Delafield Member. (b) Kerr-McGee borehole #7629-16 in Sec. 29, T7S, R6E, Saline County, type section of the Galatia Member.  +
Isopach map of the Delafield Member. From Wanless et al. (1970). Thicknesses are in feet.  +
Map from Potter (1962), showing the thickness (in feet) of sandstone between the Houchin Creek and Springfield Coals, with the Galatia channel (from Hopkins 1968) superimposed.  +
Photograph showing underclay of the Springfield Coal at American Coal’s Galatia Mine, Saline County, Illinois. Field of view approximately 5 ft (1.5 m) square.  +
Map showing the thickness and mined areas of the Springfield Coal throughout Illinois. From Treworgy et al. (1999).  +
Photographs showing thinly interlaminated shale and dull to bright coal along margins of the Galatia channel at the Prosperity Mine in Gibson County, Indiana. The lower frame is a closer view of the upper.  +
Cross section of Galatia channel in American Coal’s Galatia Mine in Saline County, Illinois, based on core drilling and observations in mine.  +
Photographs showing the ragged, erosive contact between light-colored siltstone of the Dykersburg Member and the underlying coaly shale of the Galatia Member, in the channel crossing at Galatia Mine, Saline County. (a) View of the east wall of the entry. Coaly shale of the Galatia Member grades laterally northward (left, out of view) to shaly Springfield Coal. The pick is approximately 2 ft (60 cm) long. (b) Close-up view on the west wall of the entry. The heart of the Galatia channel is south (left) of view. Notice how erosion undercut the clay below layers of tough, fibrous peat.  +
Map showing the thickness of the Dykersburg Member in the vicinity of Galatia channel in southeastern Illinois. From Treworgy et al. (1999).  +
Photograph showing rhythmic lamination in sandy facies of the Dykersburg Member in American Coal’s Millennium Mine, Saline County, Illinois.  +
Photograph showing rhythmic lamination in sandy facies of the Dykersburg Member in the Millennium Mine, with lamination offlapping the top of the coal. Sediment thus was deposited in a wedge, prograding from left to right.  +
Photographs showing large, well-preserved fronds of fossil plant foliage (Laevenopteris?) in the Dykersburg Member at Millennium Mine, Saline County, Illinois.  +
Photograph of an upright tree stump, rooted at the top of the coal and encased in mudstone of the Dykersburg Member, at American Coal’s Galatia Mine in Saline County, Illinois.  +
Photograph of “rolls” at the top of the Springfield Coal, filled with Dykersburg sediments, at American Coal’s Millennium Mine in Saline County, Illinois. Ragged splaying of coal layers at the margins of rolls evokes fibrous peat layers ripped out by strong currents.  +
Photographs showing Springfield Coal “split” by massive siltstone in the Millennium Mine. The lower view is a close-up of the upper view. Notice the ragged splaying of coal layers into the siltstone from both above and below, with one coal stringer crossing diagonally from the lower to the upper coal “bench.” Combined with the absence of roots beneath the upper “bench,” such geometry implies that the upper part of the peat deposit was rafted.  +
Photographs of siltstone “splits” in the Springfield Coal. (a) Upper “bench” of coal splitting into multiple layers, with ragged splaying of lower coal layers at the Millennium Mine. (b) Contact between upper coal “bench” and massive siltstone “split” in American Coal’s Millennium Mine, approximately 0.6 mi (1 km) west of the main Galatia channel. Notice complete absence of root traces in the siltstone.  +
Profile view of the disturbance in Figure 21a in the Millennium Mine, Saline County, Illinois.  +
Profile view of the disturbance Figure 21b in the Millennium Mine. The map shows the relationship to the Galatia channel.  +
Map and cross section of the disturbance in the Sahara No. 20 Mine, Saline County, Illinois.  +
Map and cross section of the disturbance in the Dering Coal Company No. 2 Mine, Saline County, Illinois.  +
Drawings from Meier and Harper (1981) illustrating a major disruption of the Springfield Coal in AMAX Coal’s Wabash Mine in Wabash County, Illinois.  +
(Above) Image of the major disturbance in the Wabash mine. From Meier and Harper (1981. (Below) The same drawing with interpretation added, depicting the peat deposit torn asunder, with the upper part floated away from the lower. The seam height at the left side of the diagram is approximately 9 ft (2.7 m).  +
Photograph of interlaminated carbonaceous shale and bright to dull coal close to the margin of the Sullivan channel in the Oaktown Mine in Knox County, Indiana.  +
Photograph of interlaminated carbonaceous shale and bright to dull coal close to the margin of the Sullivan channel in the Oaktown Mine in Knox County, Indiana.  +
Map from Potter (1962) showing the Effingham channel as described in this report.  +
Gamma-ray–neutron log from the Berry Petroleum #11-14 Pitcher well in Jasper County, indicating coal in the upper part of the Effingham channel fill.  +
Graphic log of core from Richland County, Illinois, showing filling of the Effingham channel. The core shows two upward-fining sequences, the lower having tidal rhythmites in the upper part. The borehole is ISGS #1 Elysium (Hazel Farm) in Sec. 27, T4N, R9E (county no. 25922).  +
Interpretive cross section of the Effingham channel in Richland County, Illinois, showing two stages of infilling, with local coal at the top of the lower stage.  +
Maps of the Leslie Cemetery channel. From Eggert (1984). (a) Regional map showing the relationship to other channels. (b) Map of the northern part of the Leslie Cemetery channel, with the thickness of the Folsomville Member.  +
Map of the Leslie Cemetery channel prepared for this study, using information from boreholes and mines. Lines of section for Figure 28 and Plate 6 are shown.  +
Sketches illustrating opposite margins of the Leslie Cemetery channel, as exposed in surface mines. The southern drawing is from Peabody’s Eby Pit in June 1982. The northern view is from Peabody’s Lynnville Mine in July 1983. Approximate locations are indicated in Figure 27 '''NOT THE CORRECT FIGURE NO.'''.  +
Interpretive diagram showing sequential development of the Leslie Cemetery channel. (a) The Francisco channel is eroded and filled with sediment, largely sand. (b) Springfield peat accumulates in swale left by the abandoned channel. (c) Flowing water reoccupies the channel during the later stages of peat accumulation. Peat encroaches from the margins as the channel migrates laterally. (d) A marine incursion drowns the region and deposits black shale and limestone. Channel filling inverts the topography because of differential compaction.  +
Map and cross section of the Terre Haute channel. From Friedman (1960). Lines of cross sections are shown on the map  +
Map of the Illinois Basin showing channels and gray shale wedges affecting the Murphysboro, Colchester, Herrin, Baker, and Danville Coals.  +
Stratigraphic column showing the units mentioned in the section on channels affecting coal seams other than the Springfield.  +
Isopach map of the Francis Creek Shale. From Korose et al. (2003), modified from Smith (1970).  +
Interpretive cross section of the Herrin Coal, Walshville channel, and Energy Shale.  +
Map showing the Walshville channel and sulfur content of the Herrin Coal. From Treworgy et al. (2000). The four named areas of low-sulfur coal all are associated with thick Energy Shale adjacent to the channel.  +
Map showing the Winslow–Henderson channel.  +
Interpretive cross section of the Winslow–Henderson channel.  +
Disruption of the Danville Coal, with the seam “split” by a thick wedge of mudstone. Note the ragged splaying of coal into mudstone, with a thin coal stringer crossing diagonally from the lower to upper bench. The site is the box cut at a portal of the Prosperity Mine in Gibson County, Indiana.  +
Map showing the thickness of the Murphysboro Coal near the Oraville channel in Jackson and Perry Counties, southwestern Illinois. From Jacobson (1983).  +
Interpretive cross section of the Oraville channel.  +
Deposition of the Delafield Member as a series of coalescing deltas during the onset of a glacial stage as the sea level began to fall. The product is a thick succession of clastic rocks that coarsen upward.  +
Channel incision of delta sediments.  +
The Galatia channel developed a meander belt.  +
The change to a humid climate caused peat to form.  +
Peat accumulated across a large area of the basin.  +
A warming climate brought rapid melting of the glaciers and a sea-level rise. The Galatia channel became an estuary, subject to strong tidal currents.  +
Peat swamps drowned as the estuary became an embayment. Dykersburg sediments rapidly buried the peat.  +
As the transgression continued apace, the entire basin area was submerged in deep water, which became stratified and anoxic, and black mud (Turner Mine Shale) was deposited.  +
Normal marine circulation resumed near the apex of an interglacial stage (marine highstand), bringing a brief interlude of carbonate sedimentation (St. David Limestone).  +
Marine regression begins the next cycle.  +
Conceptual model of Pangea during a glacial episode of the Pennsylvanian. From Cecil et al. (2003).  +
Conceptual model of Pangea during an interglacial episode of the Pennsylvanian. From Cecil et al. (2003).  +
Diagram illustrating the possible relationship of the Effingham and Galatia channels to Midcontinent cyclothems.  +
Cross section of the Galatia channel near Raleigh in Saline County, Illinois  +
Cross section of the Galatia channel near Raleigh in Saline County, Illinois  +
Cross section of the Galatia channel in Wabash County, Illinois  +
Cross section of the Galatia channel in Wabash County, Illinois  +
Cross section of the Effingham channel at Olney in Richland County, Illinois  +
Cross section of the Effingham channel at Olney in Richland County, Illinois  +
Cross section of the Effingham channel near Stewardson in Effingham and Shelby Counties, Illinois  +
Cross section of the Effingham channel near Stewardson in Effingham and Shelby Counties, Illinois  +
Cross section of the Leslie Cemetery channel in Gibson and Warrick Counties, Indiana  +
Cross section of the Leslie Cemetery channel in Gibson and Warrick Counties, Indiana  +
Map of the southeastern part of the Illinois Basin showing the thickness of the Springfield Coal, channels that affect the coal, and major structural features  +
F
Fig_0870_Photos_001. Photo of the sandy facies of the Hagarstown Member of the Pearl Formation. This photo was taken in 2006 at the Keyesport Sand and Gravel Pit in Clinton County, Illinois. More information on the stratigraphy and geologic history is provided in the FOP Guidebook of Grimley and Phillips (2015). The Sangamon Geosol solum (reddish brown) is developed into the upper couple meters of the unit in the photo. High-angle reverse faulting is interpreted to be from ice-block melting. The depositional environment is here interpreted to be an ice-walled channel. Photograph by David Grimley, May 2006.  +
Fig_0870_Photos_002. The Munie Pit in Madison County, Illinois. Pictured are David Grimley (ISGS) left and Gerry Berning (USDA-NRCS, Soil Scientist) on the right, for scale. Sangamon Geosol development is visible in the upper portion of the unit. This area contains fine sand beds, as well as areas with diamicton beds in the upper portion. It was therefore mapped as the mixed facies in some parts of the pit. Photograph by Andrew Philips, 2004.  +
P
Figure 4-1. Chart showing the development of the Pennsylvanian classification in the Illinois Basin. From the Tri-State Committee (2001). Used courtesy of the Tri-State Committee.  +
Figure 4-10. Idealized diagram illustrating the merging of Davis and Dekoven Coals to form the Seelyville Coal, and the splitting of Dekoven Coal into Greenbush and Abingdon Coals. © University of Illinois Board of Trustees.  +
Figure 4-11. Thickness of the Seelyville Coal. Modified from Korose et al. (2002). Selected anticlines have been added. Copyright © 2002 University of Illinois Board of Trustees.  +
Figure 4-12. Correlation of the Seelyville Coal Member and associated strata from Illinois to the Midcontinent Basin. Midcontinent data from Gentile and Thompson (2004), Pope (2012), Heckel (2013), and P.H. Heckel (personal communication, Aug. 1, 2014). Not to scale. © University of Illinois Board of Trustees.  +
Figure 4-13. Graphic log of the upper part of the Kentucky Geological Survey’s Gil-15 core, principal reference section for the Dekoven and Davis Coal Members. Location is in Carter section 5-M-18, Union County, Kentucky. © University of Illinois Board of Trustees.  +
Figure 4-14. Gamma ray/density and neutron log from the Peabody Natural Gas No. 2 Short borehole in sec. 14, T 7 S, R 7 E, Hamilton County, Illinois, illustrating the log response of Davis, Will Scarlet, Dekoven, and associated units. © University of Illinois Board of Trustees.  +
Figure 4-15. Graphic log of the ISGS No. 1 Morris borehole in Williamson County, the type section for the Will Scarlet Shale Member. Location is in sec. 6, T 10 S, R 4 E, Williamson County, Illinois. © University of Illinois Board of Trustees.  +
Figure 4-16. Thickness of the “parting in the Dekoven Coal.” Modified from Jacobson (1993). Copyright ©1993 University of Illinois Board of Trustees.  +
Figure 4-17. Type section of the Abingdon Coal Member on a tributary of Brush Creek, central part of sec. 6, T 9 N, R 2 E, Knox County, Illinois. Based on ISGS unpublished field notes by H.R. Wanless (August 1929). © University of Illinois Board of Trustees.  +
Figure 4-18. Map of the type area of the Colchester Coal, showing locations of the measured sections in Figure 4-19. Base map is a Colchester 7.5-minute topographic sheet, used courtesy of the U.S. Geological Survey.  +
Figure 4-19. Measured sections from the type area of the Colchester Coal in McDonough County, Illinois. See Figure 4-18 for locations. Columns 1 and 5 from ISGS unpublished field notes by Nelson (1983). Column 2 from Wanless (1929). Copyright © 1929 University of Illinois Board of Trustees. Column 3 from ISGS unpublished field notes by D.L. Reinertsen and R.L. Berger (1959). Column 4 from ISGS unpublished field notes by D.L. Reinertsen and R.L. Berger (1959) and Nelson (1983).  +
Figure 4-2. Reference section for the Carbondale Formation in western Illinois. After Kosanke et al. (1960). Current nomenclature is applied. © University of Illinois Board of Trustees.  +
Figure 4-20. Field sketch by W.J. Nelson (1983) illustrating apparent splitting of the Colchester Coal. Underclay and lower splits of coal are at the lower right. Separating the lower and upper coal benches is gray, weakly laminated siltstone that resembles normal Francis Creek Shale. No underclay or rooted zone was observed below the upper coal bench. This feature may have formed when the bulk of the Colchester peat deposit was rafted during early stages of Francis Creek deposition. Sandstone overlying the coal underwent compressional folding and shearing prior to lithification, possibly as a result of sediment compaction. Width of view: ~75 feet (23 m) laterally and 25 feet (7.6 m) vertically. Locality: Stream bank in Argyle Lake State Park, SE1/4 NE1/4 SW1/4, sec. 31, T 6 N, R 3 W, McDonough County. © University of Illinois Board of Trustees.  +
Figure 4-21. Type section of the Francis Creek Shale. Modified from Wanless (1957). Copyright © 1957 University of Illinois Board of Trustees.  +
Figure 4-22. Log of Northern Illinois Gas borehole PON-62 in sec. 2, T 27 N, R 6 E, Livingston County, Illinois. This is a reference section for the Francis Creek Shale Member. © University of Illinois Board of Trustees.  +
Figure 4-23. Isopach map of the Francis Creek Shale. From Korose et al. (2003), modified from Smith et. al (1970). Copyright © 1970, 2003 University of Illinois Board of Trustees.  +
Figure 4-24. Pods of Francis Creek Shale above depressions in the Colchester Coal as exposed on the highwall at United Electric Coal Companies Banner Mine, SE1/4, NW1/4, sec. 12, T 6 N, R 5 E, Fulton County, Illinois. From Smith et al. (1970). Copyright © 1970 University of Illinois Board of Trustees.  +
Figure 4-25. Wolf Bridge section in sec. 13, T 10 N, R 3 E, Knox County, Illinois, the reference section for the Oak Grove Member. From Smith et al. (1970). Copyright © 1970 University of Illinois Board of Trustees.  +
Figure 4-26. Diagram showing how Wright (1965) interpreted regional relationships of the Oak Grove Member and adjacent units. Copyright © 1965 Cynthia R. Wright. Used with permission.  +
Figure 4-27. Diagram from Wanless (1964), illustrating his hypothesis that the Wheeler and Bevier Coal Beds wedge out into the Oak Grove succession of marine shale and limestone. Used with permission of the Kansas Geological Survey.  +
Figure 4-28. Graphic log from the Audubon Oil & Gas No. A-1 Green borehole in sec. 30, T 2 S, R 10 E, Edwards County, Illinois, reference section for the Purington Shale. © University of Illinois Board of Trustees.  +
Figure 4-29. Graphic log from the ISGS No. 1 Eric Miller borehole in sec. 2, T 8 N, R 6 E, Peoria County, Illinois, the reference section for the Purington Shale. Coal and limestone units below the Colchester Coal have not been identified. © University of Illinois Board of Trustees.  +
Figure 4-3. Log of DTE Methane No. 11-1 Lexington borehole in sec. 11, T 6 S, R 2 E, Franklin County, Illinois. This is the reference log for the Carbondale Formation. Lithologic patterns in the center column denote cored intervals. © University of Illinois Board of Trustees.  +
Figure 4-30. Type section of the Survant Coal Member, as described by Wier (1961). Data used under Creative Commons license CC BY-NC-SA 3.0.  +
Figure 4-31. Graphic log of the Audubon Oil & Gas No. 1 Fritschle borehole in sec. 20, T 6 N, R 9 E, Jasper County, Illinois, the reference section for the Wheeler and Bevier Coals in Illinois. © University of Illinois Board of Trustees.  +
Figure 4-32. Graphic log for the ISGS No. 1 CNX Railroad borehole in sec. 8, T 9 N, R 12 W, Clark County, Illinois, the reference section for the Survant Coal (merged Wheeler and Bevier Coals). © University of Illinois Board of Trustees.  +
Figure 4-33. Graphic logs of three cores from Iowa illustrating the Wheeler and Bevier Coals. From Ravn et al. (1984). Figure provided courtesy of the Iowa Geological Survey, the University of Iowa. These cores are reference sections for both units.  +
Figure 4-34. Map showing the distribution of the Survant Coal and its components in Illinois. © University of Illinois Board of Trustees.  +
Figure 4-35. Graphic log from the Audubon Oil & Gas No. 1 Birkner borehole in sec. 24, T 4 S, R 6 E, Hamilton County, Illinois, showing overthickened Survant Coal, evidently in a channel and analogous to the Cardiff, Kerton Creek, and Roodhouse coal beds. © University of Illinois Board of Trustees.  +
Figure 4-36. Gamma ray/microresitivity log from the Elysium Energy No. 99 Coen borehole in sec. 9, T 3 N, R 9 E, Richland County, Illinois, illustrating the log response of the lower Carbondale Formation strata. © University of Illinois Board of Trustees.  +
Figure 4-37. Generalized section in the Cardiff area, northeastern Livingston County, Illinois, based on a composite of drilling records. © University of Illinois Board of Trustees.  +
Figure 4-38. Block diagram showing stratigraphic relationships of the lenticular Kerton Creek and Summum (now Houchin Creek) coals to adjacent strata and the channel of Pleasantview sandstone cutting to Colchester Coal. From Wanless (1952, figure 3). Used with permission of the Nova Scotia Geological Survey.  +
Figure 4-39. Drawing showing the Kerton Creek Coal with middle clastic layer, which may be the division between the Wheeler and Bevier Coals. From Searight (unpublished manuscript, 1925-1927, figure 22).  +
Figure 4-4. Thickness of the Carbondale Formation in Illinois. From Willman et al. (1975), based on a map by K.E. Clegg. Copyright ©1975 University of Illinois Board of Trustees.  +
Figure 4-40. Composite section of Roodhouse Coal, based on ISGS unpublished field notes by G.H. Cady, T.A. Hendricks, J.R. Van Pelt Jr., and H.R. Wanless. © University of Illinois Board of Trustees.  +
Figure 4-41. Reference section of the Lagonda Member in Illinois, a composite of a graphic log based on continuous core from the ISGS Elysium Energy No. 1 borehole and the gamma ray/resistivity log from the closely adjacent Elysium Energy No. 7 Wasson borehole, both in sec. 27, T 4 N, R 9 E, Richland County, Illinois. © University of Illinois Board of Trustees.  +
Figure 4-42. Reference section for the Breezy Hill Limestone Member in La Salle County, Illinois. From Smith et al. (1970). Copyright © 1970 University of Illinois Board of Trustees.  +
Figure 4-43. Section from the ravine northeast of Summum, showing the Houchin Creek Coal and enclosing strata. Data from Wanless (1957, p. 204-205). © University of Illinois Board of Trustees.  +
Figure 4-44. Graphic log of core (partial) from Freeman United Coal Mining Company hole C-1-74 in sec. 23, T 12 N, R 6 W, Macoupin County, Illinois, the principal reference section for the Excello Shale and Houchin Creek Coal Members in Illinois. © University of Illinois Board of Trustees.  +
Figure 4-45. Graphic logs from three cores drilled by Rust E & I in St. Clair County, Illinois, illustrating the unnamed gray shale that locally occurs between the Houchin Creek Coal and the Excello Shale. © University of Illinois Board of Trustees.  +
Figure 4-46. Type section of the Hanover Limestone Member, based on ISGS unpublished field notes by J.R. Van Pelt Jr. and T.A. Hendricks (1927). © University of Illinois Board of Trustees.  +
Figure 4-47. Four graphic columns from the St. Louis area illustrating local thickening of the Hanover Member on the flank of the Ozark Dome. Column 1 from data from Rubey (1952) and ISGS unpublished field notes by H.R. Wanless et al. Column 2 modified from Knight (1933) and Searight (1959), with data from Gentile and Thompson (2004). Knight (1933) reprinted by permission of the American Journal of Science. Searight (1959) used with permission of the Missouri Geological Survey. Column 3 from unpublished data by W.J. Nelson and J.A. Devera. Column 4 modified from Nelson (2005). Copyright © 2005 University of Illinois Board of Trustees.  +
Figure 4-48. Type section of the Covel Conglomerate Bed. From ISGS unpublished field notes by H.B. Willman (1929, 1930). © University of Illinois Board of Trustees.  +
Figure 4-49. Gamma-ray, density, and lithologic log from the Energy Plus ME-13 borehole in sec. 31, T 4 S, R 6 E, Hamilton County, Illinois, the type section for the Delafield Member. © University of Illinois Board of Trustees.  +
Figure 4-5. Chart showing the chronostratigraphic classification and correlations among the Illinois, Midcontinent, and Northern Appalachian Basins for the Carbondale Formation and adjacent strata. Data from Peppers (1996) and Heckel (2013). Not to scale. © University of Illinois Board of Trustees.  +
Figure 4-50. Thickness (in feet) of the clastic interval between the Houchin Creek and Springfield Coals, here named the Delafield Member. Map from Nelson et al. (2020), after Wanless et al. (1970). Copyright © 2020 University of Illinois Board of Trustees.  +
Figure 4-51. Graphic columns of two sections in Fulton County, Illinois, illustrating the Delafield or Morgan School Member. Data from Wanless (1957). Note “extra” coal (Briar Hill?) in left column. © University of Illinois Board of Trustees.  +
Figure 4-52. Generalized section from La Salle County, northern Illinois, showing what may be the Delafield or Morgan School Member. Modified from Willman and Payne (1942). Copyright © 1942 University of Illinois Board of Trustees.  +
Figure 4-53. Gamma ray/resistivity log from the Peabody Natural Gas No. 2 Short test hole in sec. 14, T 7 5, R 9 E, Hamilton County, Illinois, illustrating the Delafield Member and bounding units. © University of Illinois Board of Trustees.  +
Figure 4-54. Graphic log of the Kerr-McGee No. 7629-16 borehole in sec. 29, T 7 S, R 6 E, Saline County, Illinois, the type section of the Galatia Member. © University of Illinois Board of Trustees.  +
Map for Figure 4-55. Cross section of Galatia channel in Raleigh area, Saline County. © University of Illinois Board of Trustees.  +
Figure 4-55. Cross section of the Galatia channel based on logs of oil-test holes near Raleigh in Saline County, Illinois. © University of Illinois Board of Trustees.  +
Figure 4-56. Graphic log based on core from an Abandoned Mines Reclamation Council borehole in sec. 21, T 16 N, R 4 W, Sangamon County, Illinois, the principal reference section for the Springfield Coal Member. © University of Illinois Board of Trustees.  +
Figure 4-57. Map showing the thickness of the Springfield Coal in Illinois, Indiana, and western Kentucky. From ISGS unpublished map by W.J. Nelson (2014), modified from Hatch and Affolter (2002). Original figure used courtesy of the U.S. Geological Survey.  +
Figure 4-58. Type section of the Dykersburg Shale in Williamson County, Illinois, based on ISGS unpublished field notes by M.E. Hopkins and R.A. Peppers (February 1967). © University of Illinois Board of Trustees.  +
Figure 4-59. Graphic logs of two Pyro Mining Company boreholes in Saline County, Illinois, the reference sections for the Dykersburg Shale. © University of Illinois Board of Trustees.  +
Figure 4-6. Measured section of the Seelyville Coal in its type area south of Seelyville in Clay County, Indiana. The section was formerly exposed in the highwall of the Amax Coal Company Chinook surface mine in NE1/4, sec. 19, T 12 N, R 12 W, Clay County, Indiana (after ISGS mine notes described by J.T. Popp, R.J. Jacobson, and J.C. Cobb). Modified from Jacobson (1987), using current terminology. Copyright © 1987 University of Illinois Board of Trustees.  +
Figure 4-60. Composite section based on 15 cored test holes at the Turner Mine site, the type locality for the Turner Mine Shale Member. From Nelson (1983a). Copyright © 1983 University of Illinois Board of Trustees.  +
Figure 4-61. Logs of ISGS McCormick No. 1 borehole in sec. 21, T 8 S, R 8 E, Gallatin County, Illinois, the reference sections for Canton Shale, Briar Hill Coal, and Big Creek Shale. © University of Illinois Board of Trustees.  +
Figure 4-62. Map of the Streator, Illinois, area showing the locations of the Klein Bridge and Greenhouse sections of Willman and Payne (1942) and the location of Spring Lake. Modified from Willman and Payne (1942). Copyright © 1942 University of Illinois Board of Trustees. Base map is a Streator 15-minute topographic sheet, used courtesy of the U.S. Geological Survey.  +
Figure 4-63. Klein Bridge and Greenhouse sections of Willman and Payne (1942), the reference sections for the Vermilionville Sandstone Member. These sections also illustrate the presence of the Energy Shale Member above the Herrin Coal in northern Illinois. Data from Willman and Payne (1942, p. 295). © University of Illinois Board of Trustees.  +
Figure 4-64. Reference section for the Vermilionville Sandstone Member. Data from Wanless (1957, p. 207, geologic section 44). Location is a ravine in E1/₂ SE1/₄, sec. 8, T 6 N, R 3 E, Fulton County, Illinois. © University of Illinois Board of Trustees.  +
Figure 4-65. Section based on data from Willman and Payne (1942) in which the Vermilionville Sandstone, as they called it, directly underlies the Herrin Coal. This sandstone actually represents the Walshville Member. Location is on the south bank of the Vermilion River in sec. 31, T 33 N, R 2 E, LaSalle County, Illinois. © University of Illinois Board of Trustees.  +
Figure 4-66. Type section of the Antioch Limestone Member, based on data from Wier (1961). Data used under Creative Commons license CC BY-NC-SA 3.0.  +
Figure 4-67. Graphic log based on core from Kentucky Geological Survey borehole WKUG-9 drilled in Carter section 17-P-19, Union County, Kentucky. This is the reference section for the Briar Hill Coal. © University of Illinois Board of Trustees.  +
Figure 4-68. Diagram modified from Willman and Payne (1942) illustrating the relationship of Spring Lake Coal to adjacent units. Copyright © 1942 University of Illinois Board of Trustees.  +
Figure 4-69. Graphic log based on core from Peabody Energy borehole no. 15-H7, sec. 15, T 6 N, R 8 W, Sullivan County, Indiana, the reference section for the Bucktown Coal Member of previous authors. After Willman and Payne (1942). Copyright © 1942 Illinois State Geological Survey.  +
Figure 4-7. Graphic log of Indiana Geological Survey borehole SDH-306 in sec. 2, T 2 S, R 7 W, Pike County, Indiana. Data from Hasenmueller and Ault (1991). This core is the reference section for the underlined members. © University of Illinois Board of Trustees.  +
Figure 4-70. Graphic log of part of the core from Arch Minerals borehole 57 in sec. 14, T 6 S, R 4 W, Perry County, Illinois, the type section of the Percy Limestone Member (new to this report). © University of Illinois Board of Trustees.  +
Figure 4-71. Graphic column at Burning Star No. 4 Mine showing the Percy Limestone Member. Modified from Palmer and Dutcher (1979). Copyright © 1979 University of Illinois Board of Trustees.  +
Figure 4-72. Correlations between Illinois and Missouri, with special reference to the Higginsville (Missouri) and Percy (Illinois) Limestone Members. Left column © University of Illinois Board of Trustees. Right column modified from Gentile and Thompson (2004). Used with permission of the Missouri Geological Survey.  +
Figure 4-73. Five well logs illustrating the Walshville channel and Walshville Member in Franklin County, southern Illinois. Well 2 is the type log for the Walshville Member. © University of Illinois Board of Trustees.  +
Figure 4-74. Graphic log of the Madison Coal Corp. No. 25 borehole from sec. 12, T 8 S, R 3 E, Williamson County, Illinois, the reference section for the Herrin Coal Member. © University of Illinois Board of Trustees.  +
Figure 4-75. Photograph illustrating the great thickness of the Herrin Coal close to the Walshville channel. This photograph was taken circa 1915 in the Old Ben No. 9 underground mine near West Frankfort in Franklin County, Illinois. Wearing a soft cap with open-flame carbide lamp and smoking a pipe, the miner is undercutting the coal seam in preparation for drilling shot holes and blasting with black powder. Photograph donated to ISGS by the Illinois Mining Institute.  +
Figure 4-76. Hand specimen of “blue band.” Photograph 2008 by Scott D. Elrick. © University of Illinois Board of Trustees.  +
Figure 4-77. The “blue band” at a site where the Herrin Coal is reduced to thin streaks of coal, box cut at the Francisco Mine, Gibson County, Indiana. Photograph 2010 by Scott D. Elrick. © University of Illinois Board of Trustees.  +
Figure 4-78. Graphic log of Freeman Coal Company borehole No. 06-01-72 drilled in sec. 16, T 3 S, R 2 E, Jefferson County, Illinois. This core serves as a reference section for the Energy Shale and Anna Shale Members. © University of Illinois Board of Trustees.  +
Figure 4-79. Lens of Energy Shale sharply truncated by Anna Shale in the Orient No. 4 underground mine, Williamson County, Illinois. Photograph 1976 from ISGS files. The geologist is Christopher Ledvina. © University of Illinois Board of Trustees.  +
Figure 4-8. Graphic log of part of the Snow Hill Coal Corp. Talleydale Mine boring no. 1, a reference section for the Seelyville Coal Member. Location is in sec. 20, T 13 N, R 9 W, Vigo County, Indiana. © University of Illinois Board of Trustees.  +
Figure 4-80. Thin lens of Energy Shale truncated with an angular contact by the overlying Anna Shale at the Orient No. 4 underground mine, Williamson County, Illinois. Laminations in the Energy Shale can be seen on the left side of the photograph. The knobby lower surface of the Brereton Limestone can be seen at the top of the image. Approximate height of view is 5 ft (1.5 m). Photograph 1976 from ISGS files. © University of Illinois Board of Trustees.  +
Figure 4-81. Strongly jointed, sheety Anna Shale in the roof of the Orient No. 4 underground mine, Williamson County, Illinois. Photograph 1976 from ISGS files. Brunton compass for scale. © University of Illinois Board of Trustees.  +
Figure 4-9. Composite section for west-central Illinois. After Wanless (1957), with current names and correlations to Indiana, Kentucky, and southern Illinois. © University of Illinois Board of Trustees.  +
Plate 4-1. Generalized chart showing named members and beds of the Carbondale Formation. All are members unless “bed” is specified. © University of Illinois Board of Trustees.  +