Property:Caption

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C
Map of the Illinois Basin, showing the extent of Pennsylvanian rocks, thickness of the Springfield Coal, and channels interrupting the coal. From Finley et al. (2005).  +
Correlation chart showing position of key units within the Pennsylvanian Subsystem. Global and provincial stage boundaries and ages in millions of years (Ma) are from Gradstein et al. (2012)  +
Satellite image of the mouth of the Mississippi River, showing natural levees and crevasse splays. Source of image: Google Earth.  +
Diagram showing units between the Houchin Creek and Herrin Coals, including members newly named in this report.  +
Wireline log illustrating the typical response of key units. (a) Electric log of Carter Oil #1 Beers well in Sec. 28, T8S, R4E, Williamson County, Illinois (county no. 2107). (b) Gamma-ray–resistivity log of Peabody Natural Gas #2 Short, in Sec. 14, T7S, R7E, Hamilton County (county no. 25375).  +
Wireline log illustrating the typical response of key units. (a) Electric log of Carter Oil #1 Beers well in Sec. 28, T8S, R4E, Williamson County, Illinois (county no. 2107). (b) Gamma-ray–resistivity log of Peabody Natural Gas #2 Short, in Sec. 14, T7S, R7E, Hamilton County (county no. 25375).  +
Graphic logs from cores serving as type sections of the newly named members: (a) Energy Plus borehole #ME-13 in Sec. 31, T4S, R6E, type section of Delafield Member. (b) Kerr-McGee borehole #7629-16 in Sec. 29, T7S, R6E, Saline County, type section of the Galatia Member.  +
Isopach map of the Delafield Member. From Wanless et al. (1970). Thicknesses are in feet.  +
Map from Potter (1962), showing the thickness (in feet) of sandstone between the Houchin Creek and Springfield Coals, with the Galatia channel (from Hopkins 1968) superimposed.  +
Photograph showing underclay of the Springfield Coal at American Coal’s Galatia Mine, Saline County, Illinois. Field of view approximately 5 ft (1.5 m) square.  +
Map showing the thickness and mined areas of the Springfield Coal throughout Illinois. From Treworgy et al. (1999).  +
Photographs showing thinly interlaminated shale and dull to bright coal along margins of the Galatia channel at the Prosperity Mine in Gibson County, Indiana. The lower frame is a closer view of the upper.  +
Cross section of Galatia channel in American Coal’s Galatia Mine in Saline County, Illinois, based on core drilling and observations in mine.  +
Photographs showing the ragged, erosive contact between light-colored siltstone of the Dykersburg Member and the underlying coaly shale of the Galatia Member, in the channel crossing at Galatia Mine, Saline County. (a) View of the east wall of the entry. Coaly shale of the Galatia Member grades laterally northward (left, out of view) to shaly Springfield Coal. The pick is approximately 2 ft (60 cm) long. (b) Close-up view on the west wall of the entry. The heart of the Galatia channel is south (left) of view. Notice how erosion undercut the clay below layers of tough, fibrous peat.  +
Map showing the thickness of the Dykersburg Member in the vicinity of Galatia channel in southeastern Illinois. From Treworgy et al. (1999).  +
Photograph showing rhythmic lamination in sandy facies of the Dykersburg Member in American Coal’s Millennium Mine, Saline County, Illinois.  +
Photograph showing rhythmic lamination in sandy facies of the Dykersburg Member in the Millennium Mine, with lamination offlapping the top of the coal. Sediment thus was deposited in a wedge, prograding from left to right.  +
Photographs showing large, well-preserved fronds of fossil plant foliage (Laevenopteris?) in the Dykersburg Member at Millennium Mine, Saline County, Illinois.  +
Photograph of an upright tree stump, rooted at the top of the coal and encased in mudstone of the Dykersburg Member, at American Coal’s Galatia Mine in Saline County, Illinois.  +
Photograph of “rolls” at the top of the Springfield Coal, filled with Dykersburg sediments, at American Coal’s Millennium Mine in Saline County, Illinois. Ragged splaying of coal layers at the margins of rolls evokes fibrous peat layers ripped out by strong currents.  +
Photographs showing Springfield Coal “split” by massive siltstone in the Millennium Mine. The lower view is a close-up of the upper view. Notice the ragged splaying of coal layers into the siltstone from both above and below, with one coal stringer crossing diagonally from the lower to the upper coal “bench.” Combined with the absence of roots beneath the upper “bench,” such geometry implies that the upper part of the peat deposit was rafted.  +
Photographs of siltstone “splits” in the Springfield Coal. (a) Upper “bench” of coal splitting into multiple layers, with ragged splaying of lower coal layers at the Millennium Mine. (b) Contact between upper coal “bench” and massive siltstone “split” in American Coal’s Millennium Mine, approximately 0.6 mi (1 km) west of the main Galatia channel. Notice complete absence of root traces in the siltstone.  +
Profile view of the disturbance in Figure 21a in the Millennium Mine, Saline County, Illinois.  +
Profile view of the disturbance Figure 21b in the Millennium Mine. The map shows the relationship to the Galatia channel.  +
Map and cross section of the disturbance in the Sahara No. 20 Mine, Saline County, Illinois.  +
Map and cross section of the disturbance in the Dering Coal Company No. 2 Mine, Saline County, Illinois.  +
Drawings from Meier and Harper (1981) illustrating a major disruption of the Springfield Coal in AMAX Coal’s Wabash Mine in Wabash County, Illinois.  +
(Above) Image of the major disturbance in the Wabash mine. From Meier and Harper (1981. (Below) The same drawing with interpretation added, depicting the peat deposit torn asunder, with the upper part floated away from the lower. The seam height at the left side of the diagram is approximately 9 ft (2.7 m).  +
Photograph of interlaminated carbonaceous shale and bright to dull coal close to the margin of the Sullivan channel in the Oaktown Mine in Knox County, Indiana.  +
Photograph of interlaminated carbonaceous shale and bright to dull coal close to the margin of the Sullivan channel in the Oaktown Mine in Knox County, Indiana.  +
Map from Potter (1962) showing the Effingham channel as described in this report.  +
Gamma-ray–neutron log from the Berry Petroleum #11-14 Pitcher well in Jasper County, indicating coal in the upper part of the Effingham channel fill.  +
Graphic log of core from Richland County, Illinois, showing filling of the Effingham channel. The core shows two upward-fining sequences, the lower having tidal rhythmites in the upper part. The borehole is ISGS #1 Elysium (Hazel Farm) in Sec. 27, T4N, R9E (county no. 25922).  +
Interpretive cross section of the Effingham channel in Richland County, Illinois, showing two stages of infilling, with local coal at the top of the lower stage.  +
Maps of the Leslie Cemetery channel. From Eggert (1984). (a) Regional map showing the relationship to other channels. (b) Map of the northern part of the Leslie Cemetery channel, with the thickness of the Folsomville Member.  +
Map of the Leslie Cemetery channel prepared for this study, using information from boreholes and mines. Lines of section for Figure 28 and Plate 6 are shown.  +
Sketches illustrating opposite margins of the Leslie Cemetery channel, as exposed in surface mines. The southern drawing is from Peabody’s Eby Pit in June 1982. The northern view is from Peabody’s Lynnville Mine in July 1983. Approximate locations are indicated in Figure 27 '''NOT THE CORRECT FIGURE NO.'''.  +
Interpretive diagram showing sequential development of the Leslie Cemetery channel. (a) The Francisco channel is eroded and filled with sediment, largely sand. (b) Springfield peat accumulates in swale left by the abandoned channel. (c) Flowing water reoccupies the channel during the later stages of peat accumulation. Peat encroaches from the margins as the channel migrates laterally. (d) A marine incursion drowns the region and deposits black shale and limestone. Channel filling inverts the topography because of differential compaction.  +
Map and cross section of the Terre Haute channel. From Friedman (1960). Lines of cross sections are shown on the map  +
Map of the Illinois Basin showing channels and gray shale wedges affecting the Murphysboro, Colchester, Herrin, Baker, and Danville Coals.  +
Stratigraphic column showing the units mentioned in the section on channels affecting coal seams other than the Springfield.  +
Isopach map of the Francis Creek Shale. From Korose et al. (2003), modified from Smith (1970).  +
Interpretive cross section of the Herrin Coal, Walshville channel, and Energy Shale.  +
Map showing the Walshville channel and sulfur content of the Herrin Coal. From Treworgy et al. (2000). The four named areas of low-sulfur coal all are associated with thick Energy Shale adjacent to the channel.  +
Map showing the Winslow–Henderson channel.  +
Interpretive cross section of the Winslow–Henderson channel.  +
Disruption of the Danville Coal, with the seam “split” by a thick wedge of mudstone. Note the ragged splaying of coal into mudstone, with a thin coal stringer crossing diagonally from the lower to upper bench. The site is the box cut at a portal of the Prosperity Mine in Gibson County, Indiana.  +
Map showing the thickness of the Murphysboro Coal near the Oraville channel in Jackson and Perry Counties, southwestern Illinois. From Jacobson (1983).  +
Interpretive cross section of the Oraville channel.  +
Deposition of the Delafield Member as a series of coalescing deltas during the onset of a glacial stage as the sea level began to fall. The product is a thick succession of clastic rocks that coarsen upward.  +
Channel incision of delta sediments.  +
The Galatia channel developed a meander belt.  +
The change to a humid climate caused peat to form.  +
Peat accumulated across a large area of the basin.  +
A warming climate brought rapid melting of the glaciers and a sea-level rise. The Galatia channel became an estuary, subject to strong tidal currents.  +
Peat swamps drowned as the estuary became an embayment. Dykersburg sediments rapidly buried the peat.  +
As the transgression continued apace, the entire basin area was submerged in deep water, which became stratified and anoxic, and black mud (Turner Mine Shale) was deposited.  +
Normal marine circulation resumed near the apex of an interglacial stage (marine highstand), bringing a brief interlude of carbonate sedimentation (St. David Limestone).  +
Marine regression begins the next cycle.  +
Conceptual model of Pangea during a glacial episode of the Pennsylvanian. From Cecil et al. (2003).  +
Conceptual model of Pangea during an interglacial episode of the Pennsylvanian. From Cecil et al. (2003).  +
Diagram illustrating the possible relationship of the Effingham and Galatia channels to Midcontinent cyclothems.  +
Cross section of the Galatia channel near Raleigh in Saline County, Illinois  +
Cross section of the Galatia channel near Raleigh in Saline County, Illinois  +
Cross section of the Galatia channel in Wabash County, Illinois  +
Cross section of the Galatia channel in Wabash County, Illinois  +
Cross section of the Effingham channel at Olney in Richland County, Illinois  +
Cross section of the Effingham channel at Olney in Richland County, Illinois  +
Cross section of the Effingham channel near Stewardson in Effingham and Shelby Counties, Illinois  +
Cross section of the Effingham channel near Stewardson in Effingham and Shelby Counties, Illinois  +
Cross section of the Leslie Cemetery channel in Gibson and Warrick Counties, Indiana  +
Cross section of the Leslie Cemetery channel in Gibson and Warrick Counties, Indiana  +
Map of the southeastern part of the Illinois Basin showing the thickness of the Springfield Coal, channels that affect the coal, and major structural features  +
F
Fig_0870_Photos_001. Photo of the sandy facies of the Hagarstown Member of the Pearl Formation. This photo was taken in 2006 at the Keyesport Sand and Gravel Pit in Clinton County, Illinois. More information on the stratigraphy and geologic history is provided in the FOP Guidebook of Grimley and Phillips (2015). The Sangamon Geosol solum (reddish brown) is developed into the upper couple meters of the unit in the photo. High-angle reverse faulting is interpreted to be from ice-block melting. The depositional environment is here interpreted to be an ice-walled channel. Photograph by David Grimley, May 2006.  +
Fig_0870_Photos_002. The Munie Pit in Madison County, Illinois. Pictured are David Grimley (ISGS) left and Gerry Berning (USDA-NRCS, Soil Scientist) on the right, for scale. Sangamon Geosol development is visible in the upper portion of the unit. This area contains fine sand beds, as well as areas with diamicton beds in the upper portion. It was therefore mapped as the mixed facies in some parts of the pit. Photograph by Andrew Philips, 2004.  +
P
Figure 4-1. Chart showing the development of the Pennsylvanian classification in the Illinois Basin. From the Tri-State Committee (2001). Used courtesy of the Tri-State Committee.  +
Figure 4-10. Idealized diagram illustrating the merging of Davis and Dekoven Coals to form the Seelyville Coal, and the splitting of Dekoven Coal into Greenbush and Abingdon Coals. © University of Illinois Board of Trustees.  +
Figure 4-11. Thickness of the Seelyville Coal. Modified from Korose et al. (2002). Selected anticlines have been added. Copyright © 2002 University of Illinois Board of Trustees.  +
Figure 4-12. Correlation of the Seelyville Coal Member and associated strata from Illinois to the Midcontinent Basin. Midcontinent data from Gentile and Thompson (2004), Pope (2012), Heckel (2013), and P.H. Heckel (personal communication, Aug. 1, 2014). Not to scale. © University of Illinois Board of Trustees.  +
Figure 4-13. Graphic log of the upper part of the Kentucky Geological Survey’s Gil-15 core, principal reference section for the Dekoven and Davis Coal Members. Location is in Carter section 5-M-18, Union County, Kentucky. © University of Illinois Board of Trustees.  +
Figure 4-14. Gamma ray/density and neutron log from the Peabody Natural Gas No. 2 Short borehole in sec. 14, T 7 S, R 7 E, Hamilton County, Illinois, illustrating the log response of Davis, Will Scarlet, Dekoven, and associated units. © University of Illinois Board of Trustees.  +
Figure 4-15. Graphic log of the ISGS No. 1 Morris borehole in Williamson County, the type section for the Will Scarlet Shale Member. Location is in sec. 6, T 10 S, R 4 E, Williamson County, Illinois. © University of Illinois Board of Trustees.  +
Figure 4-16. Thickness of the “parting in the Dekoven Coal.” Modified from Jacobson (1993). Copyright ©1993 University of Illinois Board of Trustees.  +
Figure 4-17. Type section of the Abingdon Coal Member on a tributary of Brush Creek, central part of sec. 6, T 9 N, R 2 E, Knox County, Illinois. Based on ISGS unpublished field notes by H.R. Wanless (August 1929). © University of Illinois Board of Trustees.  +
Figure 4-18. Map of the type area of the Colchester Coal, showing locations of the measured sections in Figure 4-19. Base map is a Colchester 7.5-minute topographic sheet, used courtesy of the U.S. Geological Survey.  +
Figure 4-19. Measured sections from the type area of the Colchester Coal in McDonough County, Illinois. See Figure 4-18 for locations. Columns 1 and 5 from ISGS unpublished field notes by Nelson (1983). Column 2 from Wanless (1929). Copyright © 1929 University of Illinois Board of Trustees. Column 3 from ISGS unpublished field notes by D.L. Reinertsen and R.L. Berger (1959). Column 4 from ISGS unpublished field notes by D.L. Reinertsen and R.L. Berger (1959) and Nelson (1983).  +
Figure 4-2. Reference section for the Carbondale Formation in western Illinois. After Kosanke et al. (1960). Current nomenclature is applied. © University of Illinois Board of Trustees.  +
Figure 4-20. Field sketch by W.J. Nelson (1983) illustrating apparent splitting of the Colchester Coal. Underclay and lower splits of coal are at the lower right. Separating the lower and upper coal benches is gray, weakly laminated siltstone that resembles normal Francis Creek Shale. No underclay or rooted zone was observed below the upper coal bench. This feature may have formed when the bulk of the Colchester peat deposit was rafted during early stages of Francis Creek deposition. Sandstone overlying the coal underwent compressional folding and shearing prior to lithification, possibly as a result of sediment compaction. Width of view: ~75 feet (23 m) laterally and 25 feet (7.6 m) vertically. Locality: Stream bank in Argyle Lake State Park, SE1/4 NE1/4 SW1/4, sec. 31, T 6 N, R 3 W, McDonough County. © University of Illinois Board of Trustees.  +
Figure 4-21. Type section of the Francis Creek Shale. Modified from Wanless (1957). Copyright © 1957 University of Illinois Board of Trustees.  +
Figure 4-22. Log of Northern Illinois Gas borehole PON-62 in sec. 2, T 27 N, R 6 E, Livingston County, Illinois. This is a reference section for the Francis Creek Shale Member. © University of Illinois Board of Trustees.  +
Figure 4-23. Isopach map of the Francis Creek Shale. From Korose et al. (2003), modified from Smith et. al (1970). Copyright © 1970, 2003 University of Illinois Board of Trustees.  +
Figure 4-24. Pods of Francis Creek Shale above depressions in the Colchester Coal as exposed on the highwall at United Electric Coal Companies Banner Mine, SE1/4, NW1/4, sec. 12, T 6 N, R 5 E, Fulton County, Illinois. From Smith et al. (1970). Copyright © 1970 University of Illinois Board of Trustees.  +
Figure 4-25. Wolf Bridge section in sec. 13, T 10 N, R 3 E, Knox County, Illinois, the reference section for the Oak Grove Member. From Smith et al. (1970). Copyright © 1970 University of Illinois Board of Trustees.  +
Figure 4-26. Diagram showing how Wright (1965) interpreted regional relationships of the Oak Grove Member and adjacent units. Copyright © 1965 Cynthia R. Wright. Used with permission.  +
Figure 4-27. Diagram from Wanless (1964), illustrating his hypothesis that the Wheeler and Bevier Coal Beds wedge out into the Oak Grove succession of marine shale and limestone. Used with permission of the Kansas Geological Survey.  +
Figure 4-28. Graphic log from the Audubon Oil & Gas No. A-1 Green borehole in sec. 30, T 2 S, R 10 E, Edwards County, Illinois, reference section for the Purington Shale. © University of Illinois Board of Trustees.  +
Figure 4-29. Graphic log from the ISGS No. 1 Eric Miller borehole in sec. 2, T 8 N, R 6 E, Peoria County, Illinois, the reference section for the Purington Shale. Coal and limestone units below the Colchester Coal have not been identified. © University of Illinois Board of Trustees.  +
Figure 4-3. Log of DTE Methane No. 11-1 Lexington borehole in sec. 11, T 6 S, R 2 E, Franklin County, Illinois. This is the reference log for the Carbondale Formation. Lithologic patterns in the center column denote cored intervals. © University of Illinois Board of Trustees.  +
Figure 4-30. Type section of the Survant Coal Member, as described by Wier (1961). Data used under Creative Commons license CC BY-NC-SA 3.0.  +
Figure 4-31. Graphic log of the Audubon Oil & Gas No. 1 Fritschle borehole in sec. 20, T 6 N, R 9 E, Jasper County, Illinois, the reference section for the Wheeler and Bevier Coals in Illinois. © University of Illinois Board of Trustees.  +