Difference between revisions of "Caseyville Formation"

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|category2=Pennsylvanian Subsystem
 
|category2=Pennsylvanian Subsystem
 
|category3=Absaroka Sequence
 
|category3=Absaroka Sequence
|category4=McCormick Group
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|category4=Raccoon Creek Group
 
|category5=Morrowan Series
 
|category5=Morrowan Series
 
|category6=Caseyville Formation
 
|category6=Caseyville Formation
|tree1=McCormick Group
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|tree1=Raccoon Creek Group
 
|tree2=Caseyville Formation
 
|tree2=Caseyville Formation
 
|tree21=Paleozoic Erathem
 
|tree21=Paleozoic Erathem
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==Primary source==
 
==Primary source==
Willman, H. B., Elwood Atherton, T. C. Buschbach, Charles Collinson, John C. Frye, M. E. Hopkins, Jerry A. Lineback, and Jack A. Simon, 1975, Handbook of Illinois Stratigraphy: Illinois State Geological Survey Bulletin 95, 261 p.
+
Nelson, W.J., 2018, Pennsylvanian Subsystem in Illinois. Edited and figures drafted by Jennifer M. Obrad. Illinois State Geological Survey Bulletin (in press).
  
 
==Contributing author(s)==
 
==Contributing author(s)==
M. E. Hopkins and J. A. Simon
+
W.J. Nelson
  
 
==Name==
 
==Name==
  
 
===Original description===
 
===Original description===
The Caseyville Formation of the McCormick Group (Owen, 1856, p. 48).
+
Referring to outcrops of quartz-pebble conglomerate and pebbly sandstone near Caseyville, Owen (1856, p. 48, 49, 56) introduced the name in the form “Caseyville conglomerate.
  
 
===Derivation===
 
===Derivation===
Named for Caseyville, on the Ohio River in southwestern Union County, Kentucky.
+
Caseyville is an unincorporated community on the Ohio River in Union County, Kentucky. According to The Political Graveyard website (http://politicalgraveyard.com/geo/KY/UN-buried.html), Caseyville was founded prior to 1821 and later named for Samuel L. Casey, U.S. Representative from the 1st District of Kentucky. Casey was born here in 1821; he died in 1902 and is buried in the Caseyville cemetery.
  
 
===Other names===
 
===Other names===
 +
Some early authors used “Millstone Grit,” a name borrowed from early usage for rocks of similar age and lithology in northern England. Others used generic terms such as “conglomerate.” Early authors, such as Shaw and Savage (1912) and Lamar (1925), applied the Pennsylvania name “Pottsville Formation” to the Caseyville and much of the Tradewater Formation in southern Illinois. The name “Mansfield Sandstone” (Hopkins 1896) became established in Indiana before widespread acceptance of Caseyville elsewhere and evolved into the current Mansfield Formation, which includes strata younger than the Caseyville.
  
 
===History/background===
 
===History/background===
 +
Glenn (1912) was the first to use the name “Caseyville” in a formational sense. Lee (1916) described the type section, along with that of the overlying Tradewater Formation. The first geologist to map the Caseyville in Illinois was Butts (1925); however, Illinois State Geological Survey (ISGS) publications continued to use “Pottsville formation” for the lower part of the Pennsylvanian into the late 1930s. As cyclothemic classification took hold, the ISGS adopted the Caseyville as a group (e.g., Weller 1940). With their thorough overhaul of Pennsylvanian classification, Kosanke et al. (1960) essentially established the present usage. The name Caseyville Formation is currently used in Illinois and Kentucky, but not in Indiana (Greb et al. 1992, 2002; Tri-State Committee 2001).
  
 
==Type section==
 
==Type section==
  
 
===Type location===
 
===Type location===
The type locality is "measured from outcrops on the Illinois shore of the Ohio River between the mouth of the Saline River and Gentry's Landing below Battery Rock," in Hardin County (Lee, 1916, p. 15-16). A well exposed reference section has been described along the Illinois Central Gulf Railroad in Pope County (NW SW SE 31, 11S-5E to NE SE NE 18, 12S-5E) (Kosanke et al., 1960, p. 28, 61-62).
+
The type section was “measured from outcrops on the Illinois shore of the Ohio River between the mouth of the Saline River and Gentry’s Landing below Battery Rock” in Hardin County, Illinois (Lee 1916, p. 15; Figure 2-1).
  
 
===Type author(s)===
 
===Type author(s)===
 +
Lee (1916, p. 15–16) created the original description (Figure 2-2). Kosanke et al. (1960) and Nelson (1989) reproduced the section. Geologic maps by Baxter et al. (1963), Kehn (1974), Denny et al. (2012), and Seid et al. (2013) cover the area.
  
 
===Type status===
 
===Type status===
 +
Like other natural exposures of the Caseyville, the type section comprises prominent cliffs and ledges of sandstone, separated by poorly exposed or covered intervals of shaly strata.
 +
 +
  
 
==Reference section==
 
==Reference section==
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==Stratigraphic relationships==
 
==Stratigraphic relationships==
The Caseyville includes strata from the base of the Pennsylvanian to the top of the Pounds Sandstone Member. The top of the Pounds is generally difficult to recognize in the subsurface north of its outcrop.
 
  
 
==Extent and thickness==
 
==Extent and thickness==
The Caseyville Formation is widespread in southern Illinois, and rocks of similar age have been reported in northwestern Illinois in parts of Mercer and Rock Island Counties (fig. P-9). In southern Illinois the Caseyville Formation is as much as 500 feet thick, but 350 feet is a common maximum elsewhere. The Caseyville varies abruptly in thickness because the unconformable surface on which it was deposited has a relief of a few hundred feet-- from the bottom of large valleys to the flat upland divides (Siever, 1951; Wanless, 1955; Bristol and Howard, 1971). To the north the Caseyville thins to zero and is overlapped by the Abbott Formation (fig. P-9). In Mercer and Rock Island Counties, the formation varies in thickness; it locally exceeds 100 feet.
 
 
<center>
 
{| class="wikitable" style="text-align: center;"
 
|-
 
|<gallery caption="" widths=250px heights=250px perrow=4>
 
Figure P-9.jpg|{{file:Figure P-9.jpg}}
 
</gallery>
 
|}
 
</center>
 
  
 
==Lithology==
 
==Lithology==
The Caseyville Formation is primarily sandstone (fig. P-3A), siltstone, and shale. The sandstones are composed of quartz and very little clay or mica. Most contain quartz granules and pebbles, commonly less than half an inch (12 mm) in diameter, which occur either scattered throughout the sandstone or concentrated in beds of conglomerate (fig. P-3F). The coarser sandstones reach about 100 feet thick and show relatively uniform cross-bedding with dip directions to the west, south, or southwest (Potter and Olsen, 1954; Potter, 1962b, 1963) parallel to the direction of elongation of the sandstone bodies. In the finer grained sandstone units, which are usually less than 25 feet thick, the most prevalent sedimentary structure is ripple bedding (fig. P-3E). Shale or siltstone interbeds are common. Considerable oil has been produced for many years in the La Salle Anticlinal Belt in eastern Illinois from sandstones in the Caseyville. <br>
 
<center>
 
{| class="wikitable" style="text-align: center;"
 
|-
 
|<gallery caption="" widths=250px heights=250px perrow=4>
 
Figure P-3A.jpg|{{file:Figure P-3A.jpg}}
 
Figure P-3E.jpg|{{file:Figure P-3E.jpg}}
 
Figure P-3F.jpg|{{file:Figure P-3F.jpg}}
 
</gallery>
 
|}
 
</center>
 
 
The shales and siltstones are not as widely exposed. The thicker shale units in the Lusk and Drury Members are sandy and contain several beds of sandstone, some relatively coarse grained. A few shales associated with coals are dark, relatively fine and uniform, and their clay mineral content is high. Most of the Caseyville in northwestern Illinois is composed of medium gray to dark gray brittle shales interbedded with silty shales and a few clean quartz sandstones. <br>
 
 
Several coal seams, most of them somewhat lenticular, are found in the Caseyville Formation, although only one -- the Gentry Coal Member in southeastern Illinois -- is named. In Rock Island and Mercer Counties, as many as seven impure coals up to 2 feet thick occur in the Caseyville (Searight and Smith, 1969). <br>
 
 
Limestones are rare in the Caseyville Formation, the only one named being the Sellers Limestone Member, which is exposed in only one small area along the Ohio River Valley. Marine invertebrate fossils are found in this limestone, as well as in a few calcareous sandstone units, some of which contain reworked Mississippian fossils. The formation is otherwise barren of animal fossils. <br>
 
 
The upper limit of the Caseyville, which is the top of the Pounds Sandstone Member, is commonly difficult to recognize in the subsurface north of its outcrop belt. Consequently, no separate map of the Caseyville thickness was prepared, but figure P-10 shows the combined thickness of the Caseyville, Abbott, and Spoon Formations. Included are strata from the base of the Pennsylvanian up to the base of the Colchester (No. 2) Coal, a widely recognized key member that has been traced throughout the state.
 
<center>
 
{| class="wikitable" style="text-align: center;"
 
|-
 
|<gallery caption="" widths=250px heights=250px perrow=4>
 
Figure P-10.jpg|{{file:Figure P-10.jpg}}
 
</gallery>
 
|}
 
</center>
 
  
 
==Core&#40;s&#41;==
 
==Core&#40;s&#41;==
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==Age and correlation==
 
==Age and correlation==
The Caseyville of Illinois correlates with all but the upper few feet of the Caseyville Formation of western Kentucky and with the lower part of the Mansfield Formation of Indiana.
 
  
 
==Environments of deposition==
 
==Environments of deposition==
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==References==
 
==References==
BRISTOL, H. M., and R. H. HOWARD, 1971, Paleogeologic map of the sub-Pennsylvanian Chesterian (upper Mississippian) surface in the Illinois Basin: Illinois State Geological Survey Circular 458, 14 p.<br>
 
KOSANKE, R. M., J. A. SIMON, H. R. WANLESS, and H. B. WILLMAN, 1960, Classification of the Pennsylvanian strata of Illinois: Illinois State Geological Survey Report of Investigations 214, 84 p.<br>
 
LEE, WALLACE, 1916, Geology of the Shawneetown quadrangle in Kentucky: Kentucky Geological Survey Bulletin, Series 4, v. 4, part 2, 73 p.<br>
 
OWEN, D. D., 1856, Report of the geological survey in Kentucky made during the years 1854 and 1855: Kentucky Geological Survey Bulletin, v. I, Series 1, 416 p. <br>
 
POTTER, P. E., 1962b, Shape and distribution patterns of Pennsylvanian sand bodies in Illinois: Illinois State Geological Survey Circular 339, 35 p.<br>
 
POTTER, P. E., 1963, Late Paleozoic sandstones of the Illinois Basin: Illinois State Geological Survey Report of Investigations 217, 92 p.<br>
 
POTTER, P. E., and J. S. OLSON, 1954, Variance components of cross-bedding direction in some basal Pennsylvanian sandstones of the Eastern Interior Basin-geological application: Journal of Geology, v. 62, p. 50-73.<br>
 
SEARIGHT, T. K., and W. H. SMITH, 1969, Strippable coal reserves of Illinois, Part 5B: Illinois State Geological Survey Circular 439, 22 p.<br>
 
SIEVER, RAYMOND, 1951, Mississippian-Pennsylvanian unconformity in southern Illinois: American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, v. 35, p. 542-581; Illinois State Geological Survey Report of Investigations 152.<br>
 
WANLESS, H. R., 1955, Pennsylvanian rocks of Eastern Interior Basin: American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, v. 39, p. 1753-1820 (see 1962).<br>
 
WANLESS, H. R., 1962, Pennsylvanian rocks of Eastern Interior Basin, ''in'' Pennsylvanian System in the United States- A symposium: American Association of Petroleum Geologists. Originally published 1955; reprinted with minor revisions.
 
  
 
{{Codes
 
{{Codes

Revision as of 20:25, 20 July 2018

Lithostratigraphy: Raccoon Creek Group >>Caseyville Formation
Chronostratigraphy: Paleozoic Erathem >>Pennsylvanian Subsystem >>Morrowan Series
Allostratigraphy: Absaroka Sequence

Primary source

Nelson, W.J., 2018, Pennsylvanian Subsystem in Illinois. Edited and figures drafted by Jennifer M. Obrad. Illinois State Geological Survey Bulletin (in press).

Contributing author(s)

W.J. Nelson

Name

Original description

Referring to outcrops of quartz-pebble conglomerate and pebbly sandstone near Caseyville, Owen (1856, p. 48, 49, 56) introduced the name in the form “Caseyville conglomerate.”

Derivation

Caseyville is an unincorporated community on the Ohio River in Union County, Kentucky. According to The Political Graveyard website (http://politicalgraveyard.com/geo/KY/UN-buried.html), Caseyville was founded prior to 1821 and later named for Samuel L. Casey, U.S. Representative from the 1st District of Kentucky. Casey was born here in 1821; he died in 1902 and is buried in the Caseyville cemetery.

Other names

Some early authors used “Millstone Grit,” a name borrowed from early usage for rocks of similar age and lithology in northern England. Others used generic terms such as “conglomerate.” Early authors, such as Shaw and Savage (1912) and Lamar (1925), applied the Pennsylvania name “Pottsville Formation” to the Caseyville and much of the Tradewater Formation in southern Illinois. The name “Mansfield Sandstone” (Hopkins 1896) became established in Indiana before widespread acceptance of Caseyville elsewhere and evolved into the current Mansfield Formation, which includes strata younger than the Caseyville.

History/background

Glenn (1912) was the first to use the name “Caseyville” in a formational sense. Lee (1916) described the type section, along with that of the overlying Tradewater Formation. The first geologist to map the Caseyville in Illinois was Butts (1925); however, Illinois State Geological Survey (ISGS) publications continued to use “Pottsville formation” for the lower part of the Pennsylvanian into the late 1930s. As cyclothemic classification took hold, the ISGS adopted the Caseyville as a group (e.g., Weller 1940). With their thorough overhaul of Pennsylvanian classification, Kosanke et al. (1960) essentially established the present usage. The name Caseyville Formation is currently used in Illinois and Kentucky, but not in Indiana (Greb et al. 1992, 2002; Tri-State Committee 2001).

Type section

Type location

The type section was “measured from outcrops on the Illinois shore of the Ohio River between the mouth of the Saline River and Gentry’s Landing below Battery Rock” in Hardin County, Illinois (Lee 1916, p. 15; Figure 2-1).

Type author(s)

Lee (1916, p. 15–16) created the original description (Figure 2-2). Kosanke et al. (1960) and Nelson (1989) reproduced the section. Geologic maps by Baxter et al. (1963), Kehn (1974), Denny et al. (2012), and Seid et al. (2013) cover the area.

Type status

Like other natural exposures of the Caseyville, the type section comprises prominent cliffs and ledges of sandstone, separated by poorly exposed or covered intervals of shaly strata.


Reference section

Reference location

Reference author(s)

Reference status

Stratigraphic relationships

Extent and thickness

Lithology

Core(s)

Photograph(s)

Contacts

Well log characteristics

Fossils

Age and correlation

Environments of deposition

Economic importance

Remarks

References

ISGS Codes

Stratigraphic Code Geo Unit Designation
3820
Penn symbol.pngcv